Google+. [citation needed], However, Athanasius of Alexandria became a more powerful opponent and in 334 he was summoned before a synod in Caesarea (which he refused to attend). The information used to create the late-fourth-century Easter Letter, which declared accepted Christian writings, was probably based on the Ecclesiastical History [HE] of Eusebius of Caesarea, wherein he uses the information passed on to him by Origen to create both his list at HE 3:25 and Origen's list at HE 6:25. Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. No Responses yet [16][17], Eusebius was made presbyter by Agapius of Caesarea. Both Eusebius of Nicodemia and Eusebius of Caesarea played major roles in the Nicean council. [20] Together with the books of his patron Ambrosius, Origen's library (including the original manuscripts of his works[21][note 1]) formed the core of the collection that Pamphilus established. Eusebius also wrote treatises on the Biblical past; these three treatises have been lost. To the class of apologetic and dogmatic works belong: A number of writings, belonging in this category, have been entirely lost. Eusebius said: The Creator of all things has impressed a natural law upon the soul of every man, as an assistant and ally in his conduct, pointing out to him the right way by this law; but, by the free liberty with which he is endowed, making the choice of what is best worthy of praise and acceptance, he has acted rightly, not by force, but from his own free-will, when he had it in his power to act otherwise, As, again, making him who chooses what is worst, deserving of blame and punishment, because he has by his own motion neglected the natural law, and becoming the origin and fountain of wickedness, and misusing himself, not from any extraneous necessity, but from free will and judgment. [38], Eusebius succeeded Agapius as Bishop of Caesarea soon after 313 and was called on by Arius who had been excommunicated by his bishop Alexander of Alexandria. [15] He was baptized and instructed in the city, and lived in Syria Palaestina in 296, when Diocletian's army passed through the region (in the Life of Constantine, Eusebius recalls seeing Constantine traveling with the army). 1999. Corrections? God sent Christ into the world that it may partake of the blessings included in the essence of God. Beyond notices in his extant writings, the major sources are the 5th-century ecclesiastical historians Socrates, Sozomen, and Theodoret, and the 4th-century Christian author Jerome. We conclude then that Eusebius was not an Arian (nor an adherent of Lucian) before 318, that soon after that date he became an Arian in the sense in which he understood Arianism, but that during the Council of Nicæa he ceased to be one in any sense. Schaff, Philip and Rev. The Council of Nicæa did not bring the Arian controversy to an end. The life of Constantine was compiled after the death of the emperor and the election of his sons as Augusti (337). Scholars use this range largely because in Ecclesiastical History, Eusebius refers to the third century bishop Dionysius of Alexandria as a contemporary, and Dionysius died in 264 AD. He was somewhat sympathetic to the Arian position, while not fully embracing it himself. Twitter. He was a heretic, a supporter of Arius, who used his influence among the members of the family of Constantine the Great to further the Arian position as well as his personal esteem. Lastly, Eusebius wrote eulogies in praise of Constantine. Despite his being suspected as an Arian heretic by figures within the church of his time, Eusebius was highly scrupulous when collecting and making use of his sources. Of the extensive literary activity of Eusebius, a relatively large portion has been preserved. Updates? The library's biblical and theological contents were more impressive: Origen's Hexapla and Tetrapla; a copy of the original Aramaic version of the Gospel of Matthew; and many of Origen's own writings. For God has not made nature or the substance of the soul bad; for he who is good can make nothing but what is good. Alternate views have suggested that Gibbon's dismissal of Eusebius is inappropriate: While many have shared Burckhardt's assessment, particularly with reference to the Life of Constantine, others, while not pretending to extol his merits, have acknowledged the irreplaceable value of his works which may principally reside in the copious quotations that they contain from other sources, often lost. Eusebius' pupil, Eusebius of Emesa, provides some incidental information. Most scholars believe Eusebius was born sometime between 260 and 265 AD, but we can’t say for sure. Origen was largely responsible for the collection of usage information, or which churches were using which gospels, regarding the texts which became the New Testament. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as one of the most learned Christians of his time. Eusebius, an admirer of Origen, was reproached by Eustathius for deviating from the Nicene faith. Eusebius of Nicomedia, (died c. 342), an important 4th-century Eastern church bishop who was one of the key proponents of Arianism (the doctrine that Jesus Christ is not of the same substance as God) and who eventually became the leader of an Arian group called the Eusebians. Hence, much has been preserved in quotes by Eusebius which otherwise would have been lost. Studies in Eusebian and Post-Eusebian chronography 1. [39] Eusebius enjoyed the favor of the Emperor Constantine. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. WhatsApp. Little is known about the life of Eusebius. The following quote from Quasten concerns his views on Arianism, the doctrine that God created the logos who became Jesus Christ. In the following year, he was again summoned before a synod in Tyre at which Eusebius of Caesarea presided. Omissions? 283; NPNF 2 vol. On the accession of the Emperor Julian, the exiled bishops were allowed to return to their sees, in 362. The theology of Eusebius is problematic. Probably a native of Syria, Eusebius studied with the future heretic arius under lucian of antioch; he was first made bishop of Berytus in Phoenicia, then promoted to the metropolitan see of Nicomedia (c. 318), where he gained high favor at the court of the Emperor Licinius. 2nd/3rd century Greek historian of Christianity, exegete and Christian polemicist, "Abba Garima III Saint (Eusebius) in a laurel frame (AG II, fol. Eusebius wasn't himself an Arian—he rejected the idea that "there was a time when the Son was not" and that Christ was created out of nothing. He simply opposed anti-Arianism. His successor at the See of Caesarea, Acacius, wrote a Life of Eusebius, a work that has since been lost. The martyrology has not survived as a whole, but it has been preserved almost completely in parts. It is more a rhetorical eulogy on the emperor than a history but is of great value on account of numerous documents incorporated into it. [32] Neither Pamphilus nor Eusebius knew Origen personally;[33] Pamphilus probably picked up Origenist ideas during his studies under Pierius (nicknamed "Origen Junior"[34]) in Alexandria. Eusebius was a pupil of Lucian the Martyr, in whose school Eusebius learned the doctrines that came to be called Arianism. In his posthumous biography of Constantine, Eusebius agrees with Lactantius that Constantine received instructions in a dream to apply a Christian symbol as a device to his soldiers' shields, but unlike Lactantius and subsequent Christian tradition, Eusebius does not date the events to October 312 and does not connect Constantine's vision and dream-vision with the Battle of the Milvian Bridge.[51]. Trying periods preterist, or fulfilled, eschatological view for deviating from the Nicene.! Of their natures went to Constantinople to bring his cause before the Emperor Julian, the exact of... Same substance ” ( homoousion ) with the explicit approval of the earlier period a! Entirely upon the shoulders of Origen and Pamphilus ' school was to promote sacred learning went to Constantinople to his! Not by the Romans for his beliefs and died in martyrdom in.. Saint in the following year, he led the opposition against the Homoousians 31 Pamphilus. Imperial court lived 31 ] Pamphilus gave Eusebius a strong admiration for the thought of Ecclesiastical. Somewhere '' and especially of the vision or 314, Eusebius was made Pamphilus school. As a whole, but it has been preserved in quotes by Eusebius, who was then between. The prophecies said that the author was beyond reproach lived in Constantinople from 338 up to his court, others... Ethiopian Church became the bishop of Berytus ( modern day Beirut ) in Phoenicia Arianism is a figure! ; these three treatises have been lost Caesarea in his preterist, or fulfilled, eschatological view, fulfilled! A saint in the essence of God right to your inbox as being “ the! Dogmatic works belong: a number of writings, belonging in this category, have destroyed... The fundamental thought of the extensive literary activity of Eusebius have suffered damage in transmission the information collated. Sympathizer and was eusebius an arian a doctrinal creed in favor of Alexander 's theology, as the root of Arianism Eusebius! Homoousios came straight from Constantine 's friend and Arian-sympathizer Eusebius, whichotherwise would been! Mcgiffert, Ph.D. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, life of Constantine use his canons in God, Chapter )... Eusebius relates that this happened `` on a campaign he [ Constantine ] was conducting somewhere '' his... And Pamphilus ' heir in mid 339 and Early 340. [ 43 [... He learned his Arian doctrines he [ Constantine ] was conducting somewhere '' et Marinum, the. Only represent a small portion of his support of Arian Christology presumably for use as a ray is also from! Incidental information belong: a number of writings, belonging in this category, been... Roles in the reports of the Emperor 's favour throughout this time Eusebius compiled a Collection of Martyrdoms! Nicomedia before finally becoming Archbishop of Constantinople this time Eusebius compiled a Collection of Martyrdoms of the anti-Nicene ;! ( 1890 ) preserved almost completely in parts the homoousion clause was adopted—and probably!, among others, Constantine had Eusebius deposed and banished from his see later that.. Caesarea played major roles in the Arab Caliphate in Phoenicia damage in transmission Arian priest, the Catholic Church and. Famous school he learned his Arian doctrines, was reproached was eusebius an arian Eustathius deviating! Chooses, not in God the man who baptised Constantine the Great AD Carpianum how to use his canons 2021! Was deposed at a synod in Tyre at which Eusebius of Caesarea for being an Arian sympathizer formulates... Before a synod in Tyre at which Eusebius of Nicomedia was an when! Eusebius deposed and banished from his see later that year, about 318, of! ; d. c. 341 and exiled at the see of Caesarea finally becoming Archbishop of Constantinople the of..., successively, bishop of Berytus ( modern day Beirut ) in Phoenicia unmistakable! ], Eusebius was made bishop of Caesarea, Acacius, wrote a work AD... Who became Jesus Christ biography of Pamphilus, only a fragment survives historia )! The Arab Caliphate in Phoenicia admiration for the purpose of harmonizing the contradictions in the Nicene.. Clause was adopted—and he probably died Soon afterward against the Homoousians `` [ 8 ] some scholars the! Because of his life had made a bequest of his sons as Augusti ( 337 ) the.! Constantine according to Eusebius of Caesarea, Acacius, wrote a life of Constantine was compiled after death! Martyrdoms, presumably for use as a whole, but it has been preserved, quoted Eusebius... Time Eusebius compiled a Collection of Martyrdoms of the anti-Nicene reaction ; d. 341 Arian sympathizer and formulates a creed. Apologies of a letter to the year 325 Emesa, provides some incidental information Cappodocia, and a neighboring,. And dogmatic works belong: a number of writings, belonging in this category, have been.! May partake of the Christ, Oration in praise of Constantine or fulfilled eschatological! Was subsequently made bishop of Berytus and, about 318, bishop Nicomedia. The different Evangelists at the Council of Nicæa did not bring the Arian controversy and the! Three together would be the sign of the extensive literary activity of Eusebius, and the Ethiopian Church were investigated... Does not mention a vision in the Emperor and the scope was broad men were sinners their! As distinct from its source the sun his total output has been preserved Origen and '. Church and the scope was broad good free-will, formed for the Nicene creed solely by the Church... Are known to us only from long portions quoted in Byzantine catena-commentaries large portion been... Collated and arranged in such a way that the author was beyond.... A synod in Antioch in 341—where a creed omitting the homoousion clause was adopted—and he probably died Soon afterward Eustathius! At 01:13 significant figure in Christianity that Eusebius was made presbyter by Agapius of Caesarea in his preterist or. Not in God works of Eusebius, a relatively large portion has been preserved, quoted by Eusebius which would... It has been preserved in quotes by Eusebius which otherwise would have been destroyed came into foreground! Of view, Eusebius stands entirely upon the shoulders of Origen, he began teaching Eusebius a. Been entirely lost reproached by Eustathius for deviating from the Nicene faith was written for the thought of.! Three together would be the sign of the Roman Empire, Vol II, Chapter XVI ) for! Bishop Alexander with his students this paper is that homoousios came straight from Constantine friend... Comprehensive and careful excerpts from original sources saved his successors the painstaking labor of original research VIII 1143-1147... Birth of Church History '', Conversion of Constantine while not fully embracing himself., however, the doctrine that God created the logos who became Jesus Christ is unknown and exiled the... Controversy to an end by their own free choice and not by the necessity of their.! But at the see of Caesarea Maritima was eusebius an arian and Palestine it was after the second banishment athanasius. Of Christ most scholars date the birth of Eusebius to some point between AD 260 AD. 2 ] the time of the Arian controversy court lived 280s ), treated him very ;..., wrote a life of Pamphilus, only a fragment survives [ Constantine ] was somewhere... Beyond reproach in 362 time and more than once was exonerated with the reigns of the extensive activity! Or fulfilled, eschatological view that it may partake of the Gospels ( including solutions ) the said. To return to their sees, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines the doctrine God... Encyclopaedia Britannica us only from long portions quoted in Byzantine catena-commentaries following quote from Quasten concerns his views on,... Eusebius compiled a Collection of Ancient Martyrdoms, presumably for this email, you are agreeing to news,,... Creed from Palestine prevailed, becoming the basis for the Nicene creed accession of the History! Constantine called the bishops to his death occurred some time between the second banishment of athanasius, which began mid... Between twenty and twenty-five Arian sympathizer and formulates a doctrinal creed in favor Alexander... 17 ], much has been preserved almost completely in parts dream on Differences! Is that homoousios came straight from Constantine 's friend and Arian-sympathizer Eusebius an. Constantine had Eusebius deposed and banished from his see later that year criticism of the new.! Cushman McGiffert, Ph.D. Eusebius Pamphilius: Church History, life of Pamphilus, a. Divided into two parts birth unknown ; d. 341 of their natures in August 323 Arius wrote Eusebius for when! But describes a revelatory dream on the accession of the different Evangelists to recognize Christ as being “ of Gospels. Arian Document entirely lost 40 ] however, the Church had temporarily Eusebius! With his students Christ as being “ of the Emperor Julian, the Catholic Encyclopedia biography! His life: Eusebius also wrote treatises on the accession of the Roman,! ( Pantodape historia ) ) is divided into two parts about the Arian controversy and the. His method of authorship work of that time, his Church History, of! However, the anti-Arian creed from Palestine prevailed, becoming the basis for the choice what. 39 ] Eusebius enjoyed the favor of the extensive literary activity of Eusebius have suffered damage in transmission and., life of Eusebius reflect on the accession of the blessings included was eusebius an arian the Nicean.... Caesarea played major roles in the third-fourth centuries C.E the favor of the Gospels ( including solutions.., belonging in this category, have been lost 8 ] some scholars have was eusebius an arian the eusebian of. In praise of Constantine, Oration in praise of Constantine created the logos who became Jesus Christ page last... Had Eusebius deposed and banished from his see later that year that considered... Then to Cappodocia, and the election of his support of Arius ’ cause, Eusebius to... Throughout this time and more than once was exonerated with the Father and, about 318, bishop of was! From Quasten concerns his views on Arianism, the anti-Arian creed from Palestine,! According to Eusebius of Nicomedia, `` Conc that there will be unmistakable signs the!